Cancer is a term that describes several malignant (dangerous, harmful) diseases that can affect just about every organ and system in the body. Malignant cells, or cancer cells, are abnormal cells that multiply in an uncontrolled fashion. Unlike normal cells, which can stop multiplying and die off as they should, cancer cells continue to multiply and can form tumors and growths. These can then invade adjacent tissues.
Cancerous cells can also break free from a tumor site and enter the bloodstream. Once they are in the bloodstream, the cells can travel to other parts of the body, spreading the disease to other organs. This process is called metastasis.
In the developing world, malignant diseases (cancers) are becoming increasingly survivable. But they are still one of the leading causes of death in countries like the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that there were 1,735,350 new cases of cancer reported in the U.S. in 2018 – the most recent year for which statistics are available.
Death can occur because of the actual tumors, such as when a tumor destroys the liver, or death can occur because of associated conditions, like sepsis. Having cancer and undergoing certain treatments, such as chemotherapy, can weaken the immune system, putting you at higher risk for developing an infection that could lead to sepsis.
Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival.
Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.
People with cancer are particularly susceptible to developing sepsis. Here are some statistics related to sepsis and cancer:
- Cancer occurs, on average, in 17-20% of all sepsis patients.
- The risk of developing sepsis is increased 10 times by the presence of any type of cancer.
- More than 1 in 5 sepsis hospitalizations are cancer-related.
- Cancer patients have 4 times the incidence of severe sepsis as did patients who do not have cancer: 16.4 cases per 1,000 people with cancer.
- The rate of severe sepsis in cancer patients varies with the type of cancer. Patients with hematologic (blood) tumors have an almost 9 times higher rate than patients with solid tumors, such as colon cancer or breast cancer.
- Severe sepsis is associated with 8.5% of all cancer deaths.
- Hospital length of stay and hospital costs are nearly 3 times higher in cancer patients with severe sepsis than in those without severe sepsis.
- The readmission rate 30 days after hospitalization is higher after a cancer-related sepsis admission (23.2%) than a non-cancer related sepsis admission (20.1%).
- Cancer survivors have more than double the risk of developing sepsis compared to patients without a history of cancer.
Why are people with malignancies at high risk?
There are several reasons why people with malignancies may be at higher risk of developing sepsis. These include:
- Frequent hospital stays, which increases the risk of contracting a hospital-acquired infection
- Surgeries, procedures that puncture the skin, insertion of urinary catheters, etc. Each time something in introduced into the body, the risk of infection goes up.
- Depressed immune system because of treatment
- Weakness due to malnutrition, illness or frailty from age can increase the risk of developing an infection
What is cancer?
As described above, cancer is a disease that occurs when abnormal cells divide and invade body tissues. The cancer diagnosis is determined by where it starts and is called the primary site if the cancer has spread. If someone is admitted to the hospital with metastasized liver cancer, although it has spread elsewhere, the cancer is still called liver cancer because this is where it began.
Cancer can be solid, usually called tumors, but all tumors are not necessarily cancer. Benign tumors are masses that are not cancerous (remember: “B” for better). Tumors that are cancerous are called malignant.
Cancers of the blood or the lymph system are not solid cancers so there are no tumors. Instead, the cancer cells circulate through the body through the blood and lymph fluid.
How do you get it?
Researchers don’t yet know exactly how or why malignancies start, but they do know that certain events can trigger them or increase the likelihood of development. Many of these triggers can be related to some lifestyle factors, such as smoking (lung, mouth and throat cancers) or getting too much sun exposure without skin protection (skin cancer), while others may be inadvertent, such as being exposed to carcinogenic (cancer-causing) chemicals.
What are the symptoms?
Signs and symptoms of cancer depend on where the malignancy is. As the organ is invaded by malignant cells or the disease spreads, the signs may start. For example, colon or bowel cancer may not be noticed until you:
- Start losing weight
- Experience either diarrhea or constipation more than usual for you
- Become very fatigued
- Experience nausea and vomiting
- Stop eating because of lack appetite
As you can see, the symptoms are similar to what could be for many other illnesses, so a malignancy may not be automatically suspected.
How is cancer treated?
Each malignancy is different and there are many differences among each type of cancer, as well.
The decision of how to treat each particular case rests on the doctor, your test results, and your overall state of health. Some tumors respond better to chemotherapy than radiotherapy, others are the other way around. Some tumors need radiotherapy to shrink them before chemotherapy or before surgery. In yet other cases, surgery is done first, followed by treatment.
Several types of cancer, such as colon cancer and skin cancer, have a very high cure rate if detected early. The key is, though, early detection.
Can cancer be prevented?
In many cases, the risk can be dropped by making some changes in your lifestyle. Of course, this is no guarantee that you will never get cancer, but a lower risk is better than a higher one.
Eating healthy foods, exercising and minimizing stress in your life seem to be the key factors in trying to reduce your own risks. As well, screening regularly for common cancers or for cancers that you may be at-risk for because of a family history or previous illness, plays a large role in curing or managing the disease.
Ask your doctor or healthcare provider what types of screening tests you should have and at what ages.
If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.”
Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.
Updated February 25, 2021.