Sepsis and IV Drug Use

People who inject IV drugs are at risk for many illnesses, the most common being hepatitis and HIV. Each time someone injects a drug, they increase their risk of contracting infections and developing sepsis, whether they use these drugs occasionally or on a regular basis.

Sepsis, which was often called blood poisoning, is the body’s life-threatening response to infection. Like strokes or heart attacks, sepsis is a medical emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment.

Suggested Citation:
Sepsis Alliance. Sepsis and IV Drug Use. 2024.

Updated January 19, 2024.


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Related Viruses


More than 1 million people in the U.S. have HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.  It’s estimated that about 10% of new HIV cases are caused by intravenous drug use. Injecting the drugs and the lifestyle that may accompany drug use can increase the risk of infection. Experts say that the most common cause of death from AIDS is sepsis.


Hepatitis doesn’t cause sepsis, but the virus can cause damage to your liver, which puts you at higher risk for infections.

Skin Infections

Injecting bacteria from used or dirty needles or failing to clean the skin before an injection can cause several types of infections.


The most common infection that affects people who inject drugs is cellulitis. Cellulitis is a type of infection that affects the skin and the tissue underneath. Cellulitis causes redness and pain to advance up the affected limb.  Group A streptococcal bacteria causes most cases of cellulitis in the general population. However, people who inject IV drugs are also at risk of cellulitis from other bacteria and even fungi.

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis, the so-called “flesh-eating disease,” is a rare but serious infection that can affect people who inject IV drugs.


Endocarditis is an inflammation of your heart’s inner lining or valves. Bacteria, fungi, or other germs in your bloodstream can cause the infection. It can develop quickly (called acute endocarditis) or more slowly (called infective endocarditis). The infection can damage your heart and cause serious and sometimes fatal complications.

If you or a loved one has recently used an IV drug and is showing signs of sepsis, it’s important to get medical help right away and to tell the doctor about the injections. This can save valuable time in diagnosing and treating sepsis.

Related Resources

Information Guide

Sepsis and HIV/AIDS

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Jordan Nelson

I am an IV drug user. (Sepsis and IV Drug Use) I have been since eighth grade. I am 19 right now. When I first started showing signs of my infection, I just thought I was dope sick. I had extreme body pain. I could barely walk. I had no energy with extremely high fevers. I went to the hospital several times but they didn’t know what was wrong with me. They just told me it was some kind of viral something. Then after the third visit to the ER and a blood culture, I was air lifted to the ... Read Full Story

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