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Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the layer of tissue that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. The three types of meningitis most commonly heard of are bacterial, viral, and fungal. You can also get parasitic meningitis and meningitis from other causes, such as from cancer, tuberculosis, even chemicals, to name a few.

Meningitis due to an infection can cause sepsis. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Like strokes or heart attacks, sepsis is a medical emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment.

Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.

What is meningitis?

While there are several types of meningitis, this information section describes the three most common ones.

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis is the most severe type of meningitis. The bacteria pass from person to person. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the most common types of bacteria that cause this infection in the United States are Haemophilus influenzae (most often caused by type b, Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes (in newborns), and Neisseria meningitidis.

Statistics show that between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 4,100 cases of bacterial meningitis each year in the U.S. Five hundred cases per year result in death.

Viral Meningitis

Viral infections are the most common cause of the infection but viral meningitis is not usually as severe as bacterial meningitis and people generally get better without treatment.

Although anyone can come down with viral meningitis, children under 5 years old and people who have compromised immune systems, either from illness or medications taken to treat some diseases, are at higher risk of doing so.

Viral illnesses such as mumps and influenza (the flu) can lead to viral meningitis.

Fungal Meningitis

Fungal meningitis is the rarest of the three. For fungal meningitis to develop, a fungal infection must spread through the blood stream to the spinal canal. A fungal infection can occur by inhaling the fungus or it can also enter the body in other ways. An outbreak of fungal meningitis began in September 2012 when patients received contaminated medication into the spinal canal by injection. As with the viral infection, the people at highest risk of developing the fungal type are the immunocompromised, such as people who have AIDS or who have cancer.

Meningitis Symptoms

Symptoms can come on very suddenly. They include:

  • Stiff neck
  • Headache
  • Fever

Other symptoms can include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash
  • Photophobia (sensitivity to light)
  • Confusion

Symptoms may be difficult to determine in very young children as they may not be able to tell you what is wrong. Signs that they may be ill may include irritability, difficulty waking, difficult feeding, and fever.

Acute meningitis is a medical emergency and needs treatment in a hospital.


Aside from the symptoms, doctors must do a few tests to make an accurate diagnosis. They may include:

  • Blood cultures. This blood test involves placing blood in a special lab dish to see if anything grows.
  • Chest X-rays
  • CT scans of the head
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap). A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is tested.


Treatment with antibiotics for bacterial meningitis must start as soon as possible. According to the CDC, “Appropriate antibiotic treatment of the most common types of bacterial meningitis should reduce the risk of dying from meningitis to below 15%, although the risk remains higher among young infants and the elderly.” In some cases, patients may receive medications called corticosteroids to help reduce the inflammation of the meninges.

Antibiotics do not help in cases of viral infections.  Doctors monitor people with viral meningitis. Most recover completely within seven to 10 days.

Anti-fungal medications, given by intravenous (IV), treat fungal meningitis. Depending on how severe the illness is, the treatment can be quite lengthy.


The HiB vaccine (Haemophilus influenzae type B) and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended childhood vaccines. These routine immunization are given regularly to children in many countries, including the United States.

The HiB vaccine was introduced to the United States in the 1980s. The vaccine is three or four doses, depending on the brand given. The CDC recommends that children receive the first two doses at two months and four months. Some brands then have a third dose at six months. A final dose is at 12 to 15 months. Since the vaccine has become routine, the incidence of severe HiB infections has dropped by 99 percent.

The pneumococcal vaccine prevents infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which can cause meningitis. Children receive the vaccine in early childhood in four doses: at two months, four months, and six months. A booster shot is at 12 to 15 months.

A pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine may be given to anyone over two years old who have illnesses that affect their immune system and to people over age 65.

Bacterial meningitis from Neisseria meningitidis spreads through close contact, such as kissing or sharing glasses and utensils. Good hygiene practices, including proper hand washing, will  decrease the chances of spreading the bacteria. If you were in close contact with someone diagnosed with the bacterial infection, speak with your doctor. Sometimes, antibiotics may prevent illness.

Prognosis (Outcome)

Meningitis, particularly bacterial meningitis, can cause sepsis, which can develop into septic shock, resulting in death.

Survivors may recover completely, while others may have complications such as hearing loss, seizures, and more.

If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.” 

The information here is also available as a Sepsis Information Guide, which is a downloadable format for easier printing.

Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.

Updated November 2, 2021.

Read Personal Stories of Sepsis and Meningitis

Debbi Geren


I was found crumpled down on our floor in the bedroom. My husband apparently tried to rouse me to get me up. When he was unable to, he went out to the living room and asked our 16-year-old son to try. Our son told dad, You need to call 911! This happened in mid-March. An ambulance came and took me to our local hospital. 4 hours later, I was LifeFlighted to a bigger hospital to continue my life saving care. I was totally out of it, with no awareness for quite a while. Fully diagnosed with meningitis B, sepsis and ... Read Full Story

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Douglass Clark

Survivor, Survivor

In March 2017, I was diagnosed with stage 4 kidney disease with a dead kidney on my right side. The decision to remove the dead kidney was put off as I was otherwise healthy for a 66-year-old. I work in the oil fields of South Texas as an Emissions Technician. I was working my last hitch in the field around Laredo in July 2017. It was brutally hot. I remember finishing up on Thursday evening and going to work on Friday for half a day. I do not remember anything else until I woke up in the ICU and my ... Read Full Story

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Caroline Trickett

Survivor, Survivor, Survivor

My name is Caroline and have just came home from the hospital. I was diagnosed with sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. (Sepsis and Meningitis, Sepsis and Pneumonia) I was rushed into hospital by ambulance. I was in for nearly 2 weeks, I was very ill. Since coming home I am still feeling very unwell and have very little energy. I am getting a lot of pain in my left arm. My body seems to be aching all over. I just wanted to make sure this is just a side effect from having the problems I had. It is nice to be ... Read Full Story

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James D. Moore

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A Tribute to My Angel, My Best-Friend, My Love, My Soul-mate, When we started this journey in 1999, I never dreamed that we would have such an incredible life together or that it would end so soon and so abruptly. When God called you into eternal rest on May 5, 2009. I felt as though I had been cheated. Cheated out of an extraordinary life with you and out of all the plans that we had made. I fought hard and tried not to be mad with God. When you left I was crushed and felt as if my life ... Read Full Story

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Crystal Landry

Survivor, Survivor, Survivor, Tribute, Survivor

Two weeks to the day after having back surgery, I began experiencing horrible pain in my back.  My doctor was not on call and the on-call doctor dismissed my concerns as regular postoperative pain. As a nurse, I am trained to recognize the signs of sepsis, but not once did I think it could happen to me. I ended up in the emergency room that day. It was discovered that I had a dural tear from my surgery and had been leaking spinal fluid for 2 weeks without symptoms. I had severe sepsis, meningitis, and the infection had spread to ... Read Full Story

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Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the layer of tissue that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. The three types of meningitis most commonly heard of are bacterial, viral, and fungal. You can also get parasitic meningitis and meningitis from other causes, such as from cancer, tuberculosis, even chemicals, to name a few.