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Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is the term the general public tends to use when speaking of illnesses caused by eating food that made them ill. Food can be contaminated by a a large number of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. If you consume food products that contain these germs, you could become seriously ill and this infection can trigger sepsis.

Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection.  Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumoniainfluenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.

The most common germs that cause food poisoning are:

  • Norovirus: Most people who have heard of norovirus likely think of it as an illness that passes from person to person, particularly among children. However, this virus can also be spread through contaminated food and water. It causes 58% of foodborne illnesses each year in the United States, causing between 19 million and 21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and  up to 800 deaths per year. Most outbreaks are associated with contaminated leafy greens (such as lettuce), fresh fruit, and shellfish.
  • Salmonella: Over 1 million people in the U.S. each year contract salmonella poisoning from food. It causes almost 400 deaths per year. This infection is often the result of consuming contaminated raw meat, poultry, and seafood. Other foods that can transmit the infection are raw eggs, and fresh fruit and vegetables that have not been thoroughly washed or have come in contact with uncooked raw meat or poultry.
  • Clostridium perfringens: This strain of infection also affects about 1 million people in the U.S. each year. It is found most often in foods like beef, poultry, and pre-cooked foods. It can also be found in dried foods. Outbreaks of this bacteria are most frequently found in areas where large amounts of food are prepared, such as cafeterias or catering facilities.
  • Campylobacter: Another foodborne illness that affects over 1 million people in the U.S. each year, campylobacter, is most often contracted by eating raw or undercooked poultry, consuming unpasteurized milk or contaminated water, or by touching these products and not washing your hands.
  • Staphylococcus aureus: This particular bacteria is quite common and many of us have the bacteria on our skin and in our nose, without any illness. However, if you carry Staphylococcus aureus and you don’t wash your hands thoroughly before handling food, the bacteria could multiply and cause serious illness to others. The products most likely to spread this germ include salads (especially if they have prepared meats, such as ham and chicken), dairy products, and eggs.

The following four germs are not as common as the food poisoning causes, but they cause the most serious illnesses:

  • Clostridium botulinum (botulism): Up to 200 people per year in the U.S. develop botulism, less than 50 of them from food. The bacteria are found in the soil where the food grows. If food is not processed and canned (or bottled) safely, the bacteria can grow, producing a toxin. Botulism is a particular concern with home canning.
  • Listeria: Listeria poisoning, called listeriosis, only affects about 1,600 people in the U.S. each year, but over 250 die from it. If a pregnant woman contracts the infection, she may not be seriously ill, but it can cause serious complications for the fetus. Listeria may be found in prepared meats, unrefrigerated foods (such as meat spreads), unpasteurized cheeses, and raw sprouts.
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli). E. coli is an infection that often hits the news when there is an outbreak. The bacteria itself is all around us and most are harmless. However, there are two types that can cause serious illness. You can learn more about E. coli at Sepsis and Intestinal E. Coli Infections.
  • Vibrio: Vibrio causes vibriosis, affecting about 80,000 people in the U.S. each year, causing about 100 deaths. It can be spread if you have an open wound that is exposed to contaminated sea water, but it is a foodborne illness as well, caused by consuming raw or undercooked seafood.

Preventing food poisoning

Not all infections, including food poisoning, can be prevented, but you can reduce your risk by following these tips:

  • Cook all meat thoroughly, particularly ground beef or meet that has been mechanically tenderized.
  • Don’t eat raw or undercooked eggs
  • Don’t reuse cutting boards or utensils after using them for meat products unless they’ve been washed in hot, soapy water first.
  • Drink only pasteurized milk and eat pasteurized dairy products.
  • Wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly, especially after touching animals and before and after handling food.

To reduce the risk of contracting infections while in countries where the bacteria are more common:

  • Drink bottled water and use bottled water to brush your teeth
  • Do not eat undercooked foods.
  • Do not use ice cubes made with tap water
  • Eat fruits that you can peel yourself
  • Wash your hands frequently


The most common symptoms of foodborne illnesses are abdominal cramping, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. If you experience any of these symptoms and they worsen instead of improve, or if you see fresh blood in your stools, contact your doctor immediately or go the the closest emergency department.

Watch for signs of sepsis. The earlier sepsis is recognized and treated, the better the outcome. Think TIME for the most basic of symptoms. If your loved one is showing a combination of these symptoms, contact your doctor, go to the emergency room, or call 911, and say, “I suspect sepsis.”


what is sepsis


To learn more about the different conditions that could increase your risk of developing sepsis, please visit the Sepsis and… library.

Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.

If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.” 

Updated August 30, 2020